sexta-feira, novembro 26, 2004

WAR, PEACE AND DIAMONDS IN ANGOLA

This paper examines to what extent the modalities of diamond production established in a time of war continue to influence the conduct of the industry today.The lesson from Angola today is that a notional peace is no guarantee that the exploitation of diamond resources will be done in a way that respects basic human rights. The author suggests that perhaps it is time to re-think the idea of what constitutes a 'blood diamond'.
J. Pearce.( review by Eldis Reporter)
Source: Institute for Security Studies (ISS), South Africa 2004

War, Peace and Diamonds in Angola

The insurrections of the Uniao para a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA), and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) of Sierra Leone forced the international community to address the problem of the sale of diamonds to fund the purchase of arms. Through the Kimberly process, the United Nations and other sections of the international community developed mechanisms to exclude from international commerce any diamonds whose sale might be traced back to armed rebel
movements.


This paper examines to what extent the modalities of diamond production established in a time of war continue to influence the conduct of the industry today.


The author conducts a brief historical overview of the evolution of the diamond industry in Angola, focusing on the way in which the Companhia de Diamantes de Angola (Diamang) has exploited labour and resources since 1919.


The paper finds that many conditions which prevent the creation of a stable and regulated environment continue to exist in Angola today. In particular, these conditions include:
* the control of the diamond fields and their populations by force of arms
* the absence of any kind of functioning legal framework to protect the rights of diamond workers and the population at large
* the lack of any functioning civil administration (beyond the level of mere bureaucracy) in most parts of the Lunda provinces
* the domination of the Angolan diamond trade by secretive networks operating on the margins of the law, but ultimately to the benefit of the members of political elites.


The paper concludes that the concept of 'blood diamonds' is one which has hitherto been associated with armed conflict. The lesson from Angola today is that a notional peace is no guarantee that the exploitation of diamond resources will
be done in a way that respects basic human rights, and which contributes to the development and well-being of the diamond-producing region, and the country as a whole. The author suggests that perhaps it is time to re-think the idea of what constitutes a 'blood diamond'.




Notes:

This articel was distributed by AFRICAFILES www.africafiles.org
a network of volunteers relaying African perspectives and alternative analyses for viable human development in the interest of justice and human rights.

5 comentários:

Anónimo disse...

San Diego is having a Hot Rod Halloween on Sunday, October 30. If you love low rider boxing then you will want to be there! All kinds of low rider boxing will be in attendance. For more information go to low rider boxing
See Ya There!!

Andrew Clacy disse...

Wow, what a great blog. I will bookmark this site and return often.
It's nice to see sites like this.

Please visit my website and let me know what you think.

diamonds Andrew

make money quick disse...

A Useful Blog to Bookmark!!! I have just come back to my desk from a good rest. Feeling great I surf into your blog. The info you have provided is very useful. Keep up the good work and Feel free to visit the following make money quick site which has much of all the make money quick related leads.

Good Life certainly demands a good income and that is our mission. Our desire is to provide all families worldwide great opportunities to increase their family income so that their children can be well cared for and can get a very good education or the things they can enjoy most and be among the most happy in life.

Take charge of your life and family, Click and Bookmark the following sites, they offer the best home based business opportunities, domains, hosting, search engine submission and marketing:
Daily Cash Sites, Online Business Opportunities, Cash Income, Egold, Online Payment Commission, Education, Email marketing, Bulk Email, Resell Rights, Marketing, Buy eGold, Websites for Sale, Family Income, Search Engine Traffic, Domains, Web Hosting, Auto Ad Submitter, Web Traffic, Traffic Booster, Sitesell Website, Home Based Business, Domain Hosting, Netsuitestore.

Click and Bookmark Google's: Earn High Income, Increase My Income, Online Income Opportunities

The world's best online marketing software and services are all here for you to choose from. These marketing software and services will determine your many online successes now and in years to come. Click on the hyperlinks for further information ...
1) The Rich Jerk - Stop Being a Pathetic Loser.
2) Affiliate Cash Vault - New fail-safe system virtually runs 100% on autopilot. Just set it and forget it!
3) Google Profits - How to Make Massive Profits Combining the Power of Google and CB.
4) Google Cash - Official Google Cash How to Earn Thousands Writing Google AdWords Part-Time updated w/ 24 videos.
5) BlogBlaster Submits To 2 Million Sites - Brand new advertising software submits to 2 million blogs!
6) Brand New Adwords Software - Become A Super Affiliate Overnight! Software Finds Most Profitable Search Terms And Products For You!
7) Instantly Increase Your Traffic & Sales - Instant Booster - Incredible Software increases your Income Instantly.
8) Fire Sale Profits - Discover the Secrets of Successful Fire Sales and How You Can Make A Fortune Selling Downloadable Products!
9) Easiest Way To Make $100+ A Day SwapClix - Instant Money Generator, Guaranteed Results, Work From Home Make Money Now! We Hide Your Affiliate Id! No Commision Stealing!
10) Process Instant Rebates Online - Make Money Online! Low Refunds.
11) The Lazy Pig - Convert $1 To $85 - Undisclosed Revolutionary 7 Step Adsense Marketing System.
12) AdBlaster Submits To 2,500,000 Sites - AdBlaster blasts to 2,500,000 Websites with just 1 click!
13) AdSense Gold-Your Fast Track To Profits - Triple your Ctr, skyrocket your Epc, track your clicks by search engine, referrer and more! Learn how to join the AdSense Elite.
14) 1stPromotion - Pro2 Mall & Portal - The Ultimate CB Mall & Affiliate Portal. The Only Mall That Gives You Total Control. Thousands Of Products, One Url.
15) The Google Ca$h Machine - Start Earning 15 Minutes from Now! Automatically.
16) The Article System - Content Generator - Instantly add targeted content to your website. Create pages that search engines will index to boost your traffic and profit!
17) Massive Targeted Traffic Guaranteed - Amazing Formula Allows You To Drive All The Targeted Website Traffic You Could Ever Possibly Want!
18) Google Adsense Secrets - Second Edition - Incredible Google Adsense secrets revealed by Pro who earns over $500/day - Breakthrough best-selling eBook - Instant download!
19) Make Big Money Taking Surveys Online - Get Paid $25.00-75.00 Per Survey Completed! High Conversions! Low Refunds!
20) Search Engine Cloaker (since 1995) - We are proud to help our customers achieve number 1 rankings in all engines for 10+ years.
21) Rapid Search Engine Placement. - This product will get your website listed on Msn, Yahoo and Google. Proven technique easy to use!
22) Super Affiliate Marketer's Secret Weapon - Drive Massive Amounts of Laser-Targeted Traffic to Your Site And Instantly Uncover Niche Markets That You Can Easily Dominate!
23) 1 Million Free Visitors On Your Website - I have become a multi-millionaire on the Internet by using these secrets! You don't need to buy any advertising online!
24) AffiliateMoneyTree.com - Huge Payouts - Make $18,659 a Month on Google Adwords! (Tip: Promote People-Search.com on Adwords using conversion tracking! Huge $ Niche!
25) Online Gold Finder - Online Gold Finder will help you find hidden profitable online niches in seconds.
26) Your License To Print Money System - Combine CB & AdWords for guaranteed income.
27) Secrets Of The Big Dogs - eBook detailing Internet promotion techniques.
28) 2Bucks' An Ad Advertising Program - Ads in multiple ezines for $1.00 each (or less) 80 ezines, 1,280,000+ subs. (Oct 2005).
29) Turn Words Into Traffic - Simple 'traffic Machine' Creates Instant Avalanche of Free Traffic to your website or affiliate links!
30) Ez Search Engine Optimization - Search engine optimization tips & advice.
31) The Next Generation Rss (Seo) Software - The Seo experts don't want you know about this powerful tool
32) Ad Word Generator - Brand New Software that Instantly Creates Profitable Google Adwords!
33) Get Organized Now - Ideas, tips, tools and more to help you organize your home, your office and your life!
34) Secret Spider Generator - The Key to Google's Back Door.
35) The Web's Greatest How-To Toolkits - Discover the Toolkits that are earning a fortune for our affiliates. And join them right now!
36) Traffic Solutions - 20,000 Real Visitors! $12.95!
37) Search Automator - In Seconds, Your Keyword Search Turns Into A Treasure-Trove Of Websites, eBooks, Articles, Mp3s, Videos, Guides, And More.
38) When Mr Cb - Meets - Mr SuperTips - He's the world's top CB expert - and he's giving you all his secrets. 39) Reaching 64.8% Internet Users You Miss - 100% Safe and Ethical Search Engine Marketing Strategy - Google Approved - Double or Even Triple Your Website Traffic.
41) Auto Submit To 3,000,000+ Websites. - Blast Your Ad to 3,000,000+ Classified Websites! Plus Huge Array of Marketing Tools.
42) Profit Plan - Private Members Bonus Site that absolutely Guarantees you will make a profit - Immediately!
43) Dynamic Revenue Generating Content - Unlock the Full Potential of Your Website to Double, Triple, or Even Quadruple Your Website Revenue!
44) Page Zero - Enlightened Search Marketing - Google AdWords and paid search campaign management consulting & eBooks.
45) Php Reciprocal Linking Management Script - Increase your search engine rankings, increase your websites link popularity and receive free targeted traffic to your website.
46) E-Book Compiler Software - Create your own E-Books to sell or to promote your site (Free trial download available)
47) Article Equalizer - The Fastest, Easiest and Most Efficent Method of Adding Tons of Quality Content to Your Website!
48) Make Your Website Sell Like Crazy - Now You Can Use The Proven Marketing Secrets of the World's Top Marketers To Make Your Ads and Letters Sell Like Crazy.
49) Internet Marketing Exposed - How To Turn Your Passion or Hobby Into a $100,000 a Year Money Machine on the Internet.
51) EzineAd.net - Ezine Advertising Special $15 for 300,000+ Subscribers. Total 1 Million Subscribers ( Aug 2003)
52) Affiliate Link Cloaker - Stop Affiliate Link Hijackers - Dead in Their Tracks! Stop Losing Your Commissions to affiliate link sneak thieves!
53) The Truth About Internet Marketing - Discover the astonishing whole truth and nothing but the truth about internet marketing!
54) Casino Affiliate Secrets - If I told you the secrets of how casino super affiliates make in excess of $50,000 every month would you be interested?
55) Make More Money With Google Adsense - The guide to increasing your Adsense Income with Url Filtering.
56) The Revolutionary Squeeze Page Generator - Introducing a new software that can automatically generate a fully-integrated profit-boosting squeeze page in just 4 clicks.
57) Sell eBooks Package-Full Resale Rights - The Ultimate eBooks reseller package, complete with plug in websites.
58) 378 Internet Marketing Predictions - Discover & Profit from the future of Internet Marketing: Trends,Forecasts,Predictions.
59) ClickAdsPro - Earn More Money Today - Learn how I made 9120 marketers work for me!
60) Top Search Engine Ranking Secrets In Google Revealed - Discover powerful Seo secrets to drive 17,282 Monthly Unique Targeted Visitors from top google rankings.

For your family's healthcare, feel free to surf and bookmark: Nutritional Supplements, Native Remedies, Herbal Supplements, Anti Aging
===============================================

make money quick and easy disse...

A Useful Blog to Bookmark. You Certainly Have Done A Lot Of Work for It!!! I have just come back to my desk from a good rest. Feeling great I surf into your blog. The info you have provided is very useful. Keep up the good work and Feel free to visit the following packaged sale site web site which has much of all the packaged sale site web related opportunities.

Good Life certainly demands a good income and that is our mission. Our desire is to provide all families worldwide great opportunities to increase their family income so that their children can be well cared for and can get a very good education or the things they can enjoy most and be among the most happy in life.

Check out the following sites, they offer the best home based business opportunities, domains, hosting, search engine submission and marketing services:
Daily Cash Sites, Online Business Opportunities, Cash Income, Egold, Online Payment Commission, Education, Email marketing, Bulk Email, Resell Rights, Marketing, Buy eGold, Websites for Sale, Family Income, Search Engine Traffic, Domains, Web Hosting, Auto Ad Submitter, Web Traffic, Traffic Booster, Sitesell Website, Home Based Business, Domain Hosting, Netsuitestore.

Also Click and Bookmark These Useful Google Pages: Earn High Income, Increase My Income, Online Income Opportunities

Among the world's best online online income and marketing services are here. A lot of money can be made from these products. Click on the hyperlinks for further information ...
1) The Rich Jerk - Stop Being a Pathetic Loser.
2) Affiliate Cash Vault - New fail-safe system virtually runs 100% on autopilot. Just set it and forget it!
3) Google Profits - How to Make Massive Profits Combining the Power of Google and CB.
4) Google Cash - Official Google Cash How to Earn Thousands Writing Google AdWords Part-Time updated w/ 24 videos.
5) BlogBlaster Submits To 2 Million Sites - Brand new advertising software submits to 2 million blogs!
6) Brand New Adwords Software - Become A Super Affiliate Overnight! Software Finds Most Profitable Search Terms And Products For You!
7) Instantly Increase Your Traffic & Sales - Instant Booster - Incredible Software increases your Income Instantly.
8) Fire Sale Profits - Discover the Secrets of Successful Fire Sales and How You Can Make A Fortune Selling Downloadable Products!
9) Easiest Way To Make $100+ A Day SwapClix - Instant Money Generator, Guaranteed Results, Work From Home Make Money Now! We Hide Your Affiliate Id! No Commision Stealing!
10) Process Instant Rebates Online - Make Money Online! Low Refunds.
11) The Lazy Pig - Convert $1 To $85 - Undisclosed Revolutionary 7 Step Adsense Marketing System.
12) AdBlaster Submits To 2,500,000 Sites - AdBlaster blasts to 2,500,000 Websites with just 1 click!
13) AdSense Gold-Your Fast Track To Profits - Triple your Ctr, skyrocket your Epc, track your clicks by search engine, referrer and more! Learn how to join the AdSense Elite.
14) 1stPromotion - Pro2 Mall & Portal - The Ultimate CB Mall & Affiliate Portal. The Only Mall That Gives You Total Control. Thousands Of Products, One Url.
15) The Google Ca$h Machine - Start Earning 15 Minutes from Now! Automatically.
16) The Article System - Content Generator - Instantly add targeted content to your website. Create pages that search engines will index to boost your traffic and profit!
17) Massive Targeted Traffic Guaranteed - Amazing Formula Allows You To Drive All The Targeted Website Traffic You Could Ever Possibly Want!
18) Google Adsense Secrets - Second Edition - Incredible Google Adsense secrets revealed by Pro who earns over $500/day - Breakthrough best-selling eBook - Instant download!
19) Make Big Money Taking Surveys Online - Get Paid $25.00-75.00 Per Survey Completed! High Conversions! Low Refunds!
20) Search Engine Cloaker (since 1995) - We are proud to help our customers achieve number 1 rankings in all engines for 10+ years.
21) Rapid Search Engine Placement. - This product will get your website listed on Msn, Yahoo and Google. Proven technique easy to use!
22) Super Affiliate Marketer's Secret Weapon - Drive Massive Amounts of Laser-Targeted Traffic to Your Site And Instantly Uncover Niche Markets That You Can Easily Dominate!
23) 1 Million Free Visitors On Your Website - I have become a multi-millionaire on the Internet by using these secrets! You don't need to buy any advertising online!
24) AffiliateMoneyTree.com - Huge Payouts - Make $18,659 a Month on Google Adwords! (Tip: Promote People-Search.com on Adwords using conversion tracking! Huge $ Niche!
25) Online Gold Finder - Online Gold Finder will help you find hidden profitable online niches in seconds.
26) Your License To Print Money System - Combine CB & AdWords for guaranteed income.
27) Secrets Of The Big Dogs - eBook detailing Internet promotion techniques.
28) 2Bucks' An Ad Advertising Program - Ads in multiple ezines for $1.00 each (or less) 80 ezines, 1,280,000+ subs. (Oct 2005).
29) Turn Words Into Traffic - Simple 'traffic Machine' Creates Instant Avalanche of Free Traffic to your website or affiliate links!
30) Ez Search Engine Optimization - Search engine optimization tips & advice.
31) The Next Generation Rss (Seo) Software - The Seo experts don't want you know about this powerful tool
32) Ad Word Generator - Brand New Software that Instantly Creates Profitable Google Adwords!
33) Get Organized Now - Ideas, tips, tools and more to help you organize your home, your office and your life!
34) Secret Spider Generator - The Key to Google's Back Door.
35) The Web's Greatest How-To Toolkits - Discover the Toolkits that are earning a fortune for our affiliates. And join them right now!
36) Traffic Solutions - 20,000 Real Visitors! $12.95!
37) Search Automator - In Seconds, Your Keyword Search Turns Into A Treasure-Trove Of Websites, eBooks, Articles, Mp3s, Videos, Guides, And More.
38) When Mr Cb - Meets - Mr SuperTips - He's the world's top CB expert - and he's giving you all his secrets. 39) Reaching 64.8% Internet Users You Miss - 100% Safe and Ethical Search Engine Marketing Strategy - Google Approved - Double or Even Triple Your Website Traffic.
41) Auto Submit To 3,000,000+ Websites. - Blast Your Ad to 3,000,000+ Classified Websites! Plus Huge Array of Marketing Tools.
42) Profit Plan - Private Members Bonus Site that absolutely Guarantees you will make a profit - Immediately!
43) Dynamic Revenue Generating Content - Unlock the Full Potential of Your Website to Double, Triple, or Even Quadruple Your Website Revenue!
44) Page Zero - Enlightened Search Marketing - Google AdWords and paid search campaign management consulting & eBooks.
45) Php Reciprocal Linking Management Script - Increase your search engine rankings, increase your websites link popularity and receive free targeted traffic to your website.
46) E-Book Compiler Software - Create your own E-Books to sell or to promote your site (Free trial download available)
47) Article Equalizer - The Fastest, Easiest and Most Efficent Method of Adding Tons of Quality Content to Your Website!
48) Make Your Website Sell Like Crazy - Now You Can Use The Proven Marketing Secrets of the World's Top Marketers To Make Your Ads and Letters Sell Like Crazy.
49) Internet Marketing Exposed - How To Turn Your Passion or Hobby Into a $100,000 a Year Money Machine on the Internet.
51) EzineAd.net - Ezine Advertising Special $15 for 300,000+ Subscribers. Total 1 Million Subscribers ( Aug 2003)
52) Affiliate Link Cloaker - Stop Affiliate Link Hijackers - Dead in Their Tracks! Stop Losing Your Commissions to affiliate link sneak thieves!
53) The Truth About Internet Marketing - Discover the astonishing whole truth and nothing but the truth about internet marketing!
54) Casino Affiliate Secrets - If I told you the secrets of how casino super affiliates make in excess of $50,000 every month would you be interested?
55) Make More Money With Google Adsense - The guide to increasing your Adsense Income with Url Filtering.
56) The Revolutionary Squeeze Page Generator - Introducing a new software that can automatically generate a fully-integrated profit-boosting squeeze page in just 4 clicks.
57) Sell eBooks Package-Full Resale Rights - The Ultimate eBooks reseller package, complete with plug in websites.
58) 378 Internet Marketing Predictions - Discover & Profit from the future of Internet Marketing: Trends,Forecasts,Predictions.
59) ClickAdsPro - Earn More Money Today - Learn how I made 9120 marketers work for me!
60) Top Search Engine Ranking Secrets In Google Revealed - Discover powerful Seo secrets to drive 17,282 Monthly Unique Targeted Visitors from top google rankings.

Personalcare and Healthcare are equally important, feel free to surf and bookmark these Nutritional Supplements, Native Remedies, Herbal Supplements, Anti Aging, and Diamonds Sites.
==================================================

Diamonds Center disse...

Hi thanks for your blog, I liked it! I also have a blog/site about diamond mine game
that covers diamond mine game
related stuff. Please feel free to visit.

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Postes populares